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The Rulers of Italy: From 1861 Until 2000


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Italy: Leading Statesmen
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After a protracted campaign of unification, which encompassed several decades and a series of conflicts, the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed on March 17th, 1861 by a parliament based in Turin. This new Italian monarchy lasted for less than ninety years, ousted by a referendum in 1946 when a slim majority voted for the creation of a Republic.

This is a chronological list of the people who have ruled Italy; the dates given are the periods of said rule.

Kingdom of Italy (Kings)
1861 - 1878 Victor Emmanuel II
1878 - 1900 Umberto I
1900 - 1946 Victor Emmanuel III
1946 Umberto II (Regent from 1944)
Republic of Italy (Presidents)
1946 - 1948 Enrico da Nicola (Provisional Head of State)
1948 - 1955 Luigi Einaudi
1955 - 1962 Giovanni Gronchi
1962 - 1964 Antonio Segni
1964 - 1971 Giuseppe Saragat
1971 - 1978 Giovanni Leone
1978 - 1985 Sandro Pertini
1985 - 1992 Francesco Cossiga
1992 - 1999 Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
1999 - Carlo Azeglio Ciampi

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