Officially known as the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, this country can trace a unique identity back to the tenth century, despite near constant occupation by other states and empires. Luxembourg was officially made a Grand Duchy by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, which included it and the areas now known as Belgium and Holland in a new Kingdom of the Netherlands. Disputes about Luxembourg's territory and ownership continued between Holland, Belgium, France and Prussia, before the country became independent in 1867. However, Luxembourg still shared its ruler with Holland until 1890, when a separate dynasty inherited the position.
This is a chronological list of the people who have ruled Luxembourg; the dates given are the periods of said rule.
House of Orange-Nassau (Grand Dukes)
1849 - 1890 William III of the Netherlands
House of Nassau (Grand Dukes)
1890 - 1905 Adolf
1905 - 1912 Wilhelm IV
1912 - 1919 Marie Adelheid
1919 - 1964 Charlotte
1964 - 2000 Jean
2000 - Henri
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