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The Rulers of the Ottoman Empire: From 1300 Until 1924


More of this Feature
• Ottoman Empire: Leading Statesmen (Forthcoming)
Turkey: Rulers
Turkey: Leading Statesmen
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In the late 13th century a series of small principalities emerged in Anatolia, sandwiched between the Byzantine and Mongol Empires. These regions were dominated by ghazis - warriors dedicated to fighting for Islam - and ruled by princes, or 'beys'. One such bey was Osman I, leader of the Osmali, or Ottoman, principality, a region which grew vastly during its first few centuries, rising to become a massive world power. The resulting Ottoman Empire, which ruled large tracts of Eastern Europe, the 'Middle East' and Mediterranean, survived until 1924, when the remaining regions transformed into Turkey.

This is a chronological list of the people who have ruled the Ottoman Empire; the dates given are the periods of said rule. Please note: the Ottoman Empire is often called either Turkey, or the Turkish Empire, in older sources.

Beys
1300 - 1326 Osman I (ruled from c. 1290)
Sultans
1326 - 1359 Orchan
1359 - 1389 Murad I
1389 - 1402 Bayezid I Yildirim
1403 - 1413 Interregnum: Civil War
1413 - 1421 Mehmed I Celebi
1421 - 1444 Murad II
1444 - 1446 Mehmed II, Fatih
1446 - 1451 Murad II (2nd time)
1451 - 1481 Mehmed II, Fatih (2nd time)
1481 - 1512 Bayezid II Wali
Both Sultan and Caliph (after 1517)
1512 - 1520 Selim I
1521 - 1566 Süleyman I (II) 'Kanuni'
1566 - 1574 Selim II
1574 - 1595 Murad III
1595 - 1603 Mehmed III
1603 - 1617 Ahmed I
1617 - 1618 Mustafa I
1618 - 1622 Osman II
1622 - 1623 Mustafa I (2nd time)
1623 - 1640 Murad IV
1640 - 1648 Ibrahim
1648 - 1687 Mehmed IV
1687 - 1691 Süleyman II (III)
1691 - 1695 Ahmed II
1695 - 1703 Mustafa II
1703 - 1730 Ahmed III
1730 - 1754 Mahmud I
1754 - 1757 Osman III
1757 - 1774 Mustafa III
1774 - 1789 Abdülhamid I
1789 - 1807 Selim III
1807 - 1808 Mustafa IV
1808 - 1839 Mahmud II
1839 - 1861 Abdülmecit I
1861 - 1876 Abdülaziz
1876 - 1909 Abdülhamid II
1909 - 1918 Mehmed V
1918 - 1922 Mehmed VI
Caliph only
1922 - 1924 Abdülmecit II

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