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The Rulers of Portugal: From 1128 Until 2000


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Portugal: Leading Statesmen
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Portugal emerged in the twelfth century, as a direct result of the Christian conquest of Iberia. Originally governed by the kingdoms of Castile and Leon, Portugal's separation began when Henry of Burgundy was appointed Count of Portugal in 1095. By 1139 Henry's son, Alfonso Henriques, was calling himself king of Portugal, and in 1179 a Pope recognised the legitimacy of this new country.

This is a chronological list of the people who have ruled Portugal; the dates given are the periods of said rule. The pseudonyms were contributed by Pedro Valadas.

House of Burgundy
1128 - 1185 Alfonso Henriques I (king from 1139) (the conquerer - O Conquistador)
1185 - 1211 Sancho I (the settler - O Povoador)
1211 - 1223 Alfonso II (the fat - O Gordo)
1223 - 1245 Sancho II (O Capelo)
1245 - 1279 Alfonso III (regent until 1248)
1279 - 1325 Dinis (the tiller - O Lavrador)
1325 - 1357 Alfonso IV (the brave - O Bravo)
1357 - 1367 Pedro I (Peter) (the defender of Justice/the one that makes Justice - O Justiceiro)
1367 - 1383 Ferdinand (the handsome - O Formoso)
House of Avis
1385 - 1433 John I (regent 83-85) "the one with good memory" (O de boa Memória)
1433 - 1438 Duarte (Edward) (the elequent - O elequente)
1438 - 1481 Alfonso V (the African - O Africano)
1481 - 1495 John II (the Perfect Prince - O Príncipe Perfeito)
1495 - 1521 Manuel I (the fortunate - O Venturoso)
1521 - 1557 John III (the pious/the pitiful - O Piedoso)
1557 - 1578 Sebastian (the desired - O desejado)
1557 - 1580 Henry (Cardinal) (the chaste - O Casto)
Spanish Rule
1580 - 1598 Philip I (II of Spain) (the prudent - O prudente)
1598 - 1621 Philip II (III of Spain) (O Pio)
1621 - 1640 Philip III (IV of Spain) (the great - O Grande)
House of Braganca (also spelt Braganza)
1640 - 1656 John IV (7th Duke of Braganca) (the restorer - O Restaurador)
1656 - 1667 Alfonso VI (the victorious - O Vitorioso)
1667 - 1706 Peter II (regent until 1683) (the pacific/the peaceful - O Pacífico)
1706 - 1750 John V (the magnanimous - O Magnãtnimo)
1750 - 1777 Joseph (the reformer - O reformador)
1777 - 1786 Peter III (joint reign with Maira I, below) (the pitiful - a Piedosa)
1777 - 1816 Maria I Francisca (joint reign until 1786)
1816 - 1826 John VI (regent, 1792 - 1816) (the forgiving - O clemente)
1826 Peter IV (the liberator - O Libertador)
1826 - 1828 Maria II da Glória
1828 - 1834 Miguel (regent from 1827) (the absolutist/the usurper - O absolutista/ O usurpador)
1834 - 1853 Maria II da Glória (2nd time) (the educator - A educadora)
1853 - 1861 Peter V (the hopeful - O esperançoso)
1861 - 1889 Louis (the popular - O Popular)
1889 - 1908 Charles (the tormented/the diplomat - O martirizado/O diplomata)
1908 - 1910 Manuel II (the unfortunate/the patriot - O desventroso/O patriota)
Republic of Portugal (presidents)
1910 - 1911 Teófila Braga (provisional)
1911 - 1915 Manuel Jose de Arriaga
1915 Teófila Braga
1915 - 1917 Bernardino Machado
1917 - 1918 Sidónio Pais
1918 - 1919 João do Canto e Castro (provisional)
1919 - 1923 António José de Almeida
1923 - 1925 Manuel Teixeira Gomes
1925 - 1926 Bernardino Machado
1926 Provisional Government
1926 - 1951 António Oscar de Fragoso Carmona
1951 Antonio de Oliveira Salazar (Prime Minister, acting head of state)
1951 - 1958 Francisco Craveiro Lopes
1958 - 1974 Amórico de Deus Rodrigues Tomás
1974 António de Spínola
1974 - 1976 Francisco da Costa Gomes
1976 - 1986 António Ramalho Eanes
1986 - 1996 Mario Soares
1996 - J. Sampaio

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