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The Rulers of Turkey: From 1922 Until 2000


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Ottoman Empire: Rulers
• Ottoman Empire: Leading Statesmen (Forthcoming)
Turkey: Leading Statesmen
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The Ottoman Empire declined during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, fragmenting into a range of new nations. Even the core Ottoman territories were affected and during the late 19th/early 20th century a sense of Turkish nationalism emerged, leading to an internal struggle for power and independence. On Jan 20th 1921, the 'Fundamental Law' created the state of Turkey. More conflict and population movement followed, before the Republic of Turkey was declared on Oct. 29, 1923; a republican constitution was adopted soon after and, having abolished the Sultanate in 1922, the Turkish government abolished the Caliphate in 1924. The Ottoman Empire had ended; Turkey had begun.

This is a chronological list of the people who have ruled Turkey; the dates given are the periods of said rule. Please note: both 'Turkey' and 'The Turkish Empire' have been used to describe the Ottoman Empire, the leaders of which are listed here.

Caliph
1922 - 1924 Abdulmecit II (Last Ottoman Ruler)
Presidents
1923 - 1938 Mustafa Kemal Pascha (called Atatürk after 1934)
1938 - 1950 Ismet Inönü
1950 - 1960 Celal Bayar
1960 - 1966 Cemal Gürsel
1966 - 1973 Cevdet Sunay
1973 - 1980 Fahri Korutürk
1980 - 1989 Kenan Evren
1989 - 1993 Turgut Özal
1993 - 2000 Süleyman Demirel
2000 - Ahmet Necdet Sezer

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