Summary of the Cold War:
The Cold War was a twentieth century conflict between the United States of America (US), the Soviet Union (USSR) and their respective allies, over political, economic and military issues, often described as a struggle between capitalism and communism. In Europe, this meant the US led West and NATO
on one side and Soviet led East and the Warsaw Pact
on the other. It lasted from 1945 to the collapse of the USSR in 1991.
Why 'Cold' War:
The war was 'cold' because there was never a direct military engagement between the two leaders, the US and the USSR, although shots were exchanged in the air during the Korean War.
Origins of the Cold War in Europe:
The aftermath of World War Two left the United States and Russia as the dominant military powers in the world, but they had very different forms of government and economy, the former a capitalist democracy, the latter a communist dictatorship. The two nations were rivals who feared each other, each ideologically opposed. The war also left Russia in control of large areas of Eastern Europe, and the US led Allies in control of the West. While the Allies restored democracy in the West, Russia began making Soviet satellites out of its 'liberated' lands; the split between the two was dubbed the Iron Curtain
The West feared a communist invasion, physical and ideological. The US countered with the Truman Doctrine
with its policy of containment
to stop communism spreading and the Marshall Plan
, massive aid aimed at supporting collapsing economies which were letting communist sympathisers gain power. Military alliances were formed as the West grouped together as NATO
and the East as the Warsaw Pact
. By 1951 Europe was divided into two power blocs, American led and Soviet led, each with atomic weapons. A 'cold war' followed which spread globally, leading to a nuclear standoff.
The Berlin Blockade:
The first time the former allies acted as certain enemies was the Berlin Blockade
. Post-war Germany was divided into four parts and occupied by the former Allies; Berlin, situated in the Soviet zone, was also divided. In 1948 Stalin enforced a blockade of Berlin aimed at bluffing the Allies into renegotiating the division of Germany in his favour rather than invading. The Allies responded with the ‘Berlin Airlift’: for eleven months supplies were flown into Berlin via Allied aircraft, bluffing that Stalin wouldn’t shoot them down and cause ‘hot’ war. He didn’t. The blockade was ended in May 1949 when Stalin gave up.
Stalin died in 1953 and hopes of a thaw were raised when new leader Khrushchev began a process of De-Stalinisation
. In May 1955, as well as forming the Warsaw Pact, he signed an agreement with the Allies to leave Austria and make it neutral. The thaw only lasted until the Budapest Rising in 1956: the communist government of Hungary, faced with internal calls for reform, collapsed and an uprising forced troops to leave Budapest. The Russian response was to have the Red Army occupy the city and put a new government in charge. The West was highly critical but, partly distracted by the Suez Crises, did nothing to help.
The Berlin Crisis and the V-2 Incident:
Fearing a reborn West Germany allied to the US, Khrushchev offered concessions in return for a united, neutral, Germany in 1958. A Paris summit for talks was derailed when Russia shot down a US U-2 spy plane flying over its territory. Khrushchev pulled out of the summit and disarmament talks. The incident was a useful out for Khrushchev, who was under pressure from hardliners within Russia for giving away too much. Under pressure from the East German leader to stop refuges fleeing to the West, and with no progress on making Germany neutral, the Berlin Wall
was built, a complete barrier between East and West Berlin.
Cold War in Europe in the 60s and 70s:
Despite the tensions and fear of nuclear war, the Cold War division between East and West proved surprisingly stable after 1961, despite French anti-Americanism and Russia crushing the Prague Spring
. There was instead conflict on the global stage, with the Cuban Missile Crisis and Vietnam. For much of the 60s and 70s a programme of 'détente' was followed, a long series of talks which made some success in stabilizing the war and equalising arms numbers. Germany negotiated with the East under a policy of Ostpolitik
. The fear of Mutually Assured Destruction
helped prevent direct conflict.
The 80s and the New Cold War:
By the 1980s Russia appeared to be winning, with a more productive economy, better missiles and a growing navy, even though the system was really corrupt and built on propaganda. America, once again fearing Russia domination, moved to re-arm and build up forces, including placing many new missiles in Europe (not without local opposition). US President Reagan increased defence spending vastly, starting the Strategic Defence Initiative to defend against nuclear attacks, an end to Mutually Assured Destruction. At the same time Russian forces entered Afghanistan, a war they would ultimately lose.
End of the Cold War in Europe:
Soviet leader Brezhnev died in 1982 and his successor, realising change was needed in a crumbling Russia and its strained satellites which they felt were losing a renewed arms race, promoted several reformers. One, Gorbachev
, rose to power in 1985 with policies of Glasnost
and decided to end the cold war and ‘give away’ the satellite empire to save Russia itself. After agreeing with the US to reduce nuclear weapons, in 1988 he addressed the UN, explaining the end of the Cold War by renouncing the Brezhnev Doctrine
, allowing political choice and pulling Russia out of the arms race.
The speed of Gorbachev’s actions unsettled the West, and there were fears of violence, especially in East Germany where the leaders talked of their own ‘Tiananmen Square’. However, Poland negotiated free elections, Hungary opened its borders and East German leader Honecker resigned when it became apparent the Soviets would not support him. The East German leadership withered away and the Berlin Wall fell ten days later. Romania overthrew its dictator and the Soviet satellites emerged from behind the Iron Curtain.
The Soviet Union itself was the next to fall. In 1991 communist hard liners attempted a coup against Gorbachev; they were defeated and Boris Yeltsin became leader. He dissolved the USSR, instead creating the Russian Federation. The Socialist era, begun in 1917, was now over and so was The Cold War.
Some books, although stressing the nuclear confrontation which came perilously close to destroying vast areas of the world, point out that this nuclear threat was most closely triggered in areas outside Europe, and that the continent in fact enjoyed fifty years of peace and stability which were sorely lacking in the first half of the twentieth century. This view is probably best balanced by the fact that much of Eastern Europe was, in effect, subjugated for the whole period by Soviet Russia.
The D-Days landings, while often overstated in their importance to the downhill of Nazi Germany, were in many ways the key battle of the Cold War in Europe, enabling Allied forces to liberate much of Western Europe before Soviet forces got their instead. The conflict has often been described a substitute for a final post-Second World War peace settlement which never came and the Cold War deeply permeated life in East and West, affecting culture and society as well as politics and the military. The Cold War has also often been described as a contest between democracy and communism, while in reality the situation was more complicated, with the 'democratic' side, led by the US, supporting some distinctly non-democratic, brutally authoritarian, regimes in order to deny countries to the Soviet sphere of influence.