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Low Countries

The politics and boundaries of the Low Countries have frequently changed, partly caused by invasion, and domination, from France, Spain, Austria and the German lands. The United Provinces of the Netherlands survived from 1579 until 1795, while the Kingdom of the Netherlands, founded in 1814, split in two when Belgium became independent in 1830. Luxembourg was recognised in 1867.

The Kings of Belgium: From 1830 Until 2000
This is an annotated listing of the Belgian kings.

Books on the Low Countries
This page indexes bibliographic information on the history of the Low Countries, including the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, as well as the Dutch Republic.

History of Belgium
This link jumps you into the middle of a five-part history of Belgium, to a page covering the 15th and 16th centuries. Use the links at either the top, or the bottom, of the page to access the later sections that take you up to the 1980’s.

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