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European History: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
What Were the Major Causes of the Renaissance?
This discussion of the causes of the Renaissance looks at seven key factors which helped thes era defining movement begin and develop.
Top 11 Historical Myths Debunked
Top historical myths debunked
What Were the Major Alliances of World War I?
The Major Alliances of World War One: who and how Europe divided in 1914.
Debunking the Myths: How Catherine the Great...
This entry in our historical myths series examines two legends about the death of Catherine the Great: one involving horses and one toilets.
The Truth Behind the 300 Who Held Thermopylae
Historical Myths - The 300 of Thermopylae - Find out the true figure
The 10 Best World War II Documentaries
A selection of documentaries about Europe and World War 2.
Was World War I Actually a 'World' War?
A complete list of the many countries involved in World War 1 including a map and different ways of presenting the information.
What Events Led to the Russian Revolution?
These were the Causes of the Russian Revolution
Learn More About Napoleon Bonaparte, the Great...
This biography of Napoleon Bonaparte condenses his life down to the essentials in three short pages, and links to extra material on his wars and government.
The Sussex Pledge (1916)
Germany and the United States of America were on a collision course during World War One which the Sussex Pledge temporarily halted. This article explains what happened, and who broke the Pledge to bring the US into the conflict.
18 Key Thinkers of the Enlightenment
A listing of eighteen key thinkers of the Enlightenment from across Europe with biographical sketches for each.
Important Dates and Events in Renaissance History
This timeline of the Renaissance contains key dates in cultural history alongside political developments and links to discussions.
A Beginner's Guide to the Enlightenment
An explanation of the Enlightenment
Who Were the Borgias?
The Borgias - A History of the Borgias
We all know the 'Third Riech', but what were...
The Other Riechs - An explanation of the three 'German' Reichs and how they relate.
Debunking the Myths: How Short Was Napoleon?
Was Napoleon Bonaparte Short? - The Height and Possible Myth of the Short Napoleon Bonaparte
Debunking the Myths: How Stalin Really Died
Did Stalin really die unaffected by the years of terror and death?
Aftermath of the Hundred Years War
Aftermath of the Hundred Years War - Aftermath of the Hundred Years War
World War I's Treaty of Versailles Explained
The Treaty of Versailles ended World War One and has been accused of starting World War Two. This article outlines the motivations behind the treaty, the key points, and the results.
A Beginner's Guide to World War I
World War 1 101 - An Introduction to World War 1
The Best Books on World War I - The Great War
The literature about World War One is vast, but I feel these are the best books for a range of readers.
Why Britain attempted to Tax American Colonists
Why Britain attempted to Tax American Colonists
Rulers of France - French kings emperors and...
Rulers of France - French kings emperors and presidents
A Beginner's Guide to the Renaissance
This page explains the key elements of the most famous renaissance, c. 1400 - 1600, and links to greater detail.
Did Marie Antoinette say "Let Them Eat Cake"?
Marie Antoinette and Let them eat cake - The truth behind the phrase
Adolf Hitler: A Brief Biography
This quick introduction to German dictator Adolf Hitler traces his life through his rise to power to starting World War 2, through his ultimate defeat to his death.
What was Absolutism?
An Introduction to Absolutism in European History.
Was Adolf Hitler a Socialist? Debunking a...
Hitler is often accused of being a socialist. This article explains why he wasn't.
A Beginner's Guide to the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution - An Overview of The Industrial Revolution
Debunking the Myths: Did Vikings Actually Wear...
Did Vikings Wear Horned Helmets? - The Truth Behind Vikings Horned Helmets
What Does BCE Stand for and How Is It Different...
BCE - Before Common Era - is a term used in modern dating systems. Find out what it means, and why it is used.
The Sharpe Books: Bernard Cornwell's Historical...
Sharpe - The Sharpe Books in Chronological Order
Causes and Preconditions for the Industrial...
What caused the Industrial Revolution, what was Britain like before it, and is there a set of pre-conditions?
A Beginner's Guide to the French Revolution
This brief account of the French Revolution explains all the key events, links to a larger narrative history, and explains the consequences.
The meaning of the dating label A.D.
AD - Anno Domini - is part of a dating system used in much of the world. This article explains what the Latin stands for, and a problem with it.
History of the European Union
History of the European Union- The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union between European countries.
The Devastating Impact of the French Revolution...
Changes caused by the French Revolution on France
Did Medieval People Believe in a Flat Earth?
Flat Earth - Did Medieval People Believe in a Flat Earth?
Is Ring A Ring A Roses about the Plague?
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >The Myth: The
Did the Treaty of Versailles Contribute to...
A look at a major controversy of twentieth century history: did the Treaty of Versailles contribute to Hitler's rise to power?
Consequences of World War One
A look at the major consequences of World War One.
Brezhnev Doctrine
Brezhnev Doctrine - An Explanation of the Brezhnev Doctrine
Renaissance Humanism
An explanation of Renaissance Humanism and why it was important.
What Role Did Women Play in World War I?
World War One affected women's employment opportunities greatly, but only in the short term. In page one we examine what these wartime changes were,.
Vlad the Impaler / Vlad III Dracula / Vlad Tepes
Vlad the Impaler - Information on Vlad the Impaler - Dracula - Tepes
Introduction to the Cold War in Europe
This profile of the Cold War explains how it began after World War 2, why it was 'Cold', what happened in Europe and how it ended peacefully.
The Hundred Years War
A History of the Hundred Years War between England and France.
Top 10 Books: French Revolution
Best Books on the French Revolution
A Beginner's Guide to the Black Death
What was the Black Death? Did it really kill a third of Europe's population?
3. The Estates General and the Revolution of 1789
In page 3 of our History of the French Revolution we explain how the Estates General met in 1789, and how the revolution truly began with calls for a National Assembly.
The Effects of the American Revolutionary War...
Britain and the American Revolutionary War
Estates General
Estates General - Definition of Estates General
France in the American Revolutionary War
The American War of Independence and the critical role of France
How did the Industrial Revolution Change...
How did the Industrial Revolution Change Britain's Population?
A Beginner's Guide to the Protestant Reformation
This summary presents an outline of the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century, the religious schism which split western Christianity permanently.
When Did the French Revolution End?
Exploring the end dates of the French Revolution
The Location of Mozart's Grave
Mozart is often said to have been buried in a pauper's grave but, while we don't know where his remains are, we know what happened and the truth is different.
Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety - Definition of Committee of Public Safety
What Countries Fought in the First World War?
This is an alphabetical listing of every country who declared war, had war declared for them, or found themselves invaded or involved in World War 1.
The 6 Phases of the French Revolution
French Revolution Timeline - A timeline of the French Revolution
Do Statues of Riders or Knights Conceal Codes?
Raised horse legs and crossed legs: do the legs on statues reveal if someone died in battle or went on crusade? Find out the truth behind this urban legend.
Rulers of England - Kings and Queens
Rulers of England - Kings and Queens: rulers of england kings of wessex saxon kingdoms tenth centuries archbishop of canterbury
Find Out Just How Many People Lost Their Lives...
World War 1 saw casualty figures in the millions, and this chart lists the totals mobilized, killed, wounded and a percentage calculation.
Debunking the Myths: Does the Severed Head of a...
How long does a guillotined head remains alive?
Why did Weimar democracy fall and Hitler's...
A contents page for our narrative of Germany from 1919 to 1934.
Top 10 WW2 DVD and Video: Eastern Front
This selection of recommended films deal with the eastern front in World War 2.
Did Mussolini Get the Trains Running on Time?
Did Mussolini get the Trains Running on Time - Debunking Mussolini and the Trains
Different ways to read Hornblower.
Horatio Hornblower - In Which Order Should You Read the Horatio Hornblower Novels?
What countries are in the European Union?
Countries in the European Union - List of Countries in the European Union
Monarchy
Information on European monarchy.
The Seven Years War 1756 - 63
The Seven Years War - The Seven Years War in Europe
The Causes and War Aims of World War One
A guide to the causes of World War One, what each of the major belligerents wanted from it.
When Did World War II End?
When did World War 2 End - End of World War 2
Key Events in Spanish History
Key Events in Spanish History
The 12 Best War Games for Your PC
There are a lot of games for the PC which have drawn on Europe's rich history, and many of them use the waging of war as the source of interaction. This is a list of the best.
What Caused the French Revolution?
In this part of our history of the French Revolution we look at the events of the 1780s which destabilized France and led to the revolution starting.
The Zimmermann Telegram
This profile explains what the Zimmermann Telegram was, why it was sent and why the threat to the US was considered necessary, how it was revealed to the US public, and how their anger led to entry into World War 1. There is also the full translated text of the Telegram.
7. The Terror 1793 - 94
This section of our History of the French Revolution discusses the most infamous era: when the leaders of France decided to rule through Terror, killing people en masse.
The Belle Époque ("Beautiful Age")
The Belle Epoque in France. European History.
Exposure by Wilfred Owen
Exposure by Wilfred Owen    I Our brains ache, in the merciless iced east winds that knife us... Wearied
How Napoleon became Emperor
How did Napoleon persuade France to allow him to become Emperor? This article explains why.
The Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan - Introduction to the Marshall Plan
Napoleonic Code / Code Napoleon
A description of the Napoleonic Code / Code Napoleon and why it is so important. Learn more about this historical legal code enacted by Napoleon in 1804.
The Wars of the Former Yugoslavia
A narrative history of the wars of the Former Yugoslavia, fought in the 1990s.
1. Pre-Revolutionary France
History of the French Revolution 1. Pre-Revolutionary France
Who were the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks?
The Mensheviks and Bolsheviks in Russian History
The Origins of Boxing Day
Boxing Day is celebrated shortly after Christmas... but no one really knows why, and sometimes when.
Venice
Venice Italy - A History of Venice Italy
Debunking The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
Rulers of Spain - Spanish kings emperors and...
Rulers of Spain - Spanish kings emperors and presidents
The Consequences of the Norman Conquest
The Consequences of the Norman Conquest - how England was changed by the events of 1066 and after.
Iron Curtain
Iron Curtain - Definition of Iron Curtain
France
A starting point for French history.
The Anglo-German Naval Race
The Anglo-German Naval Race has been cited as a key factor in the start of World War 1. Here we explain what happened.
Who Supported Hitler and Why?
An examination of why many of the German people supported Hitler.
Who Really Won World War 2 in Europe?
Who Really Won World War 2 in Europe?
Key Figures of World War One
World War 1 lasted just over four years, and included many belligerent nations. Consequently, there are a lot of famous names involved in this listing
Coal Mining: Living and Working Conditions in...
Coal was vital to the Industrial Revolution, but miners faced many problems.
Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About the...
On this page in our history and discussion of the guillotine we look at machines for decapitation which pre-date the French Revolution.
A History of the Eiffel Tower
A history of one of France's most famous structures, and a world breakthrough in construction.
The Russian Revolution of 1917
Russian Revolution of 1917 - Introduction to the Russian Revolution of 1917
Key Events in French History
France has a long and rich history, but we've broken it down into twenty six key events which span from c.800 BCE to the twentieth century.
The Christmas Truce of 1914
On Christmas Day 1914 something remarkable happened amongst troops stationed in the Western Front - soldiers from the rival sides met in the middle to exchange greetings, food and goodwill.
The Continental System
Did the Continental System, Napoleon's attempt to cripple Britain economically, work?
Women in World War 1
Changing voting opportunity was just one way women were affected by World War One; this article looks at their multi-faceted experiences during the conflict.
The Declaration of Pillnitz
The Declaration of Pillnitz failed utterly in its aims as its subtlety was lost on the revolutionaries.
Europe and the American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War and Britain, France, and Germany
Francisco Franco
The life, career, personality and death of the Spanish Dictator Francisco Franco. A look at the Spanish Civil War
Key Battles of World War One
This list collects together the dates of all the key battles of World War One, and links where relevant to narratives.
The Build Up to War: The Events That Led to...
This part of our World War 1 timeline looks at events relevant to the war pre-1914.
Convoy System
Convoy System - Definition. European History.
Community Charge / Poll Tax
Explanation about the Community Charge - Poll Tax
The Countries Involved in World War 1
Countries Involved in World War 1 - Countries of World War 1 Listed by Continent
Aircraft in World War 1
Aircraft established themselves as a vital part of the military in World War 1.
Containment
Containment - Definition of Containment
Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: Introduction
Introduction to a timeline of the Russian Revolutions in 1917 and 1905
Mental Cases by Wilfred Owen
Mental Cases by Wilfred Owen Who are these? Why sit they here in twilight? Wherefore rock they, purgatorial
Origins of the Cold War in Europe
This examination of the origins of the Cold War in Europe starts in 1917 and proceeds through the pressures of World War 2 and the aftermath, explaining how much of the world could be facing mutually assured destruction.
The November Criminals
An explanation of why this group of Germans became known as the November Criminals.
The Tudors
The Tudors - The Tudor Dynasty and Tudor England
Hitler’s Rise to Power: Timeline
A ready reference for the dates of Hitler's Rise to Power.
Top 10 Books: Modern Russia - The Revolution...
The best books on revolutionary and modern Russia
Learn about Benito Mussolini, the Infamous...
Benito Mussolini - Biography of Benito Mussolini
NATO
NATO - Information on NATO the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
20 Key Leaders in European History
Key Leaders in European History
Spain
History of Spain - Information on the History of Spain
The Diplomatic Revolution 1756
The Diplomatic Revolution - The Seven Years War and the Diplomatic Revolution
The Harrying of the North 1069 – 70
The Harrying of the North was William I's attempt to subdue northern England, but how brutal was it?
A Comprehensive Timeline of World War I
This part of our World War 1 timeline covers the year the war began: 1914.
Origin of the word ‘Protestant’
Origin of the word Protestant. European History.
World War One: The Western Front
This history of the Western Front covers the battle between Britain, France and their allies against Germany and their allies during World War One.
Rulers of the Ottoman Empire - Ottoman beys...
Rulers of the Ottoman Empire - Ottoman beys sultans and caliphs
31 European Women c.1500 - 1945
madame de sevigne josephine de beauharnais madame de maintenon artemisia gentileschi ada lovelace: 31 Women from European History 1500 to 1945 women womans ladies lady females womens history month
The Elgin Marbles / Parthenon Sculptures
Elgin Marbles - History of the The Elgin Marbles
Long Telegram
The Long Telegram of George Kennan was a message sent from the US Embassy in Moscow to Washington concerning the Soviets. Learn more about the telegram.
Italy
History of Italy - Italy Information on History
World War 1: A Short Timeline
A short timeline of World War 1 covering all the key dates.
King John
A biography of King John of England, a man with a very poor reputation to this day.
The French-Indian War
The French-Indian War - Britain and France in the The French-Indian War in America
Elizabeth Báthory
Was Elizabeth Báthory really a serial killer? Or has she been falsely maligned? This is her history.
The Development of Banking in the Industrial...
How did the development of banking and finance help the industrial revolution?
Third Estate
Third Estate - Definition of Third Estate
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England - Biography of Elizabeth I
The Duma
The Duma in Russian history. European History.
Key Events in Italian History
Key Events in Italian History
Indulgence
Indulgence - Definition. European History.
French Revolution Timeline: Background Pre-1789
French Revolution Timeline - Pre 1789
The Berlin Wall
This profile of the Berlin Wall explains why the Cold War caused it's creation, how it divided the city of Berlin, and how it finally came to be pulled down.
Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: 1905
Russian Revolution Timeline - Timeline of the Russian Revolution of 1905
They host the Commonwealth Games, but what is...
The Commonwealth is an association of 53 independent nations, all but one former British colonies, with substantial economic ties and a shared history.
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