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European History: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
The Truth Behind the 300 Who Held Thermopylae
Historical Myths - The 300 of Thermopylae - Find out the true figure
The 10 Best World War II Documentaries
A selection of documentaries about Europe and World War 2.
Who Were the Borgias?
The Borgias - A History of the Borgias
We all know the 'Third Riech', but what were...
The Other Riechs - An explanation of the three 'German' Reichs and how they relate.
Debunking the Myths: How Catherine the Great...
This entry in our historical myths series examines two legends about the death of Catherine the Great: one involving horses and one toilets.
Learn More About Napoleon Bonaparte, the Great...
This biography of Napoleon Bonaparte condenses his life down to the essentials in three short pages, and links to extra material on his wars and government.
The Sharpe Books: Bernard Cornwell's Historical...
Sharpe - The Sharpe Books in Chronological Order
Adolf Hitler: A Brief Biography
This quick introduction to German dictator Adolf Hitler traces his life through his rise to power to starting World War 2, through his ultimate defeat to his death.
Was World War I Actually a 'World' War?
A complete list of the many countries involved in World War 1 including a map and different ways of presenting the information.
What Were the Major Causes of the Renaissance?
This discussion of the causes of the Renaissance looks at seven key factors which helped thes era defining movement begin and develop.
Was Adolf Hitler a Socialist? Debunking a...
Hitler is often accused of being a socialist. This article explains why he wasn't.
What Events Led to the Russian Revolution?
These were the Causes of the Russian Revolution
Debunking the Myths: How Short Was Napoleon?
Was Napoleon Bonaparte Short? - The Height and Possible Myth of the Short Napoleon Bonaparte
Rulers of France - French kings emperors and...
Rulers of France - French kings emperors and presidents
What Does BCE Stand for and How Is It Different...
BCE - Before Common Era - is a term used in modern dating systems. Find out what it means, and why it is used.
A Beginner's Guide to World War I
World War 1 101 - An Introduction to World War 1
Debunking the Myths: How Stalin Really Died
Did Stalin really die unaffected by the years of terror and death?
Important Dates and Events in Renaissance History
This timeline of the Renaissance contains key dates in cultural history alongside political developments and links to discussions.
The Best Books on World War I - The Great War
The literature about World War One is vast, but I feel these are the best books for a range of readers.
What Were the Major Alliances of World War I?
The Major Alliances of World War One: who and how Europe divided in 1914.
A Beginner's Guide to the Renaissance
This page explains the key elements of the most famous renaissance, c. 1400 - 1600, and links to greater detail.
History of the European Union
History of the European Union- The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union between European countries.
Did the Treaty of Versailles Contribute to...
A look at a major controversy of twentieth century history: did the Treaty of Versailles contribute to Hitler's rise to power?
A Beginner's Guide to the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution - An Overview of The Industrial Revolution
World War I's Treaty of Versailles Explained
The Treaty of Versailles ended World War One and has been accused of starting World War Two. This article outlines the motivations behind the treaty, the key points, and the results.
Different ways to read Hornblower.
Horatio Hornblower - In Which Order Should You Read the Horatio Hornblower Novels?
A Beginner's Guide to the Enlightenment
An explanation of the Enlightenment
The Devastating Impact of the French Revolution...
Changes caused by the French Revolution on France
How did the Industrial Revolution Change...
How did the Industrial Revolution Change Britain's Population?
What countries are in the European Union?
Countries in the European Union - List of Countries in the European Union
Vlad the Impaler / Vlad III Dracula / Vlad Tepes
Vlad the Impaler - Information on Vlad the Impaler - Dracula - Tepes
Top 10 Books: French Revolution
Best Books on the French Revolution
Causes and Preconditions for the Industrial...
What caused the Industrial Revolution, what was Britain like before it, and is there a set of pre-conditions?
An Introduction to the Cold War in Europe
This profile of the Cold War explains how it began after World War 2, why it was 'Cold', what happened in Europe and how it ended peacefully.
Renaissance Humanism
An explanation of Renaissance Humanism and why it was important.
Debunking the Myths: Did Vikings Actually Wear...
Did Vikings Wear Horned Helmets? - The Truth Behind Vikings Horned Helmets
A Beginner's Guide to the French Revolution
This brief account of the French Revolution explains all the key events, links to a larger narrative history, and explains the consequences.
The Wars of the Former Yugoslavia
A narrative history of the wars of the Former Yugoslavia, fought in the 1990s.
Consequences of World War One
A look at the major consequences of World War One.
Debunking the Myths: Does the Severed Head of a...
How long does a guillotined head remains alive?
The November Criminals
An explanation of why this group of Germans became known as the November Criminals.
Aftermath of the Hundred Years War
Aftermath of the Hundred Years War - Aftermath of the Hundred Years War
Did Marie Antoinette say "Let Them Eat Cake"?
Marie Antoinette and Let them eat cake - The truth behind the phrase
Who Supported Hitler and Why?
An examination of why many of the German people supported Hitler.
What Countries Fought in the First World War?
This is an alphabetical listing of every country who declared war, had war declared for them, or found themselves invaded or involved in World War 1.
Did Mussolini Get the Trains Running on Time?
Did Mussolini get the Trains Running on Time - Debunking Mussolini and the Trains
What was Absolutism?
An Introduction to Absolutism in European History.
The Belle Époque ("Beautiful Age")
The Belle Epoque in France. European History.
Top 10 WW2 DVD and Video: Eastern Front
This selection of recommended films deal with the eastern front in World War 2.
When Did World War II End?
When did World War 2 End - End of World War 2
Did Medieval People Believe in a Flat Earth?
Flat Earth - Did Medieval People Believe in a Flat Earth?
18 Key Thinkers of the Enlightenment
A listing of eighteen key thinkers of the Enlightenment from across Europe with biographical sketches for each.
Do Statues of Riders or Knights Conceal Codes?
Raised horse legs and crossed legs: do the legs on statues reveal if someone died in battle or went on crusade? Find out the truth behind this urban legend.
What did Hitler Believe?
A look at the confusing mixture of ideas which we believe drove Hitler.
Is Ring A Ring A Roses about the Plague?
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Top 11 Historical Myths Debunked
Top historical myths debunked
Why Churchill Lost the 1945 Election
An explanation of why Winston Churchill lost the 1945 election in Britain.
Notable Writers from European History
Notable Writers from European History
Hitler’s Rise to Power: Timeline
A ready reference for the dates of Hitler's Rise to Power.
The meaning of the dating label A.D.
AD - Anno Domini - is part of a dating system used in much of the world. This article explains what the Latin stands for, and a problem with it.
The Elgin Marbles / Parthenon Sculptures
Elgin Marbles - History of the The Elgin Marbles
A Beginner's Guide to the Black Death
What was the Black Death? Did it really kill a third of Europe's population?
Coal Mining: Living and Working Conditions in...
Coal was vital to the Industrial Revolution, but miners faced many problems.
The Effects of the American Revolutionary War...
Britain and the American Revolutionary War
The Causes and War Aims of World War One
The Causes and War Aims of World War One - Part 2. Page 2.
How Napoleon became Emperor
How did Napoleon persuade France to allow him to become Emperor? This article explains why.
Find Out Just How Many People Lost Their Lives...
World War 1 saw casualty figures in the millions, and this chart lists the totals mobilized, killed, wounded and a percentage calculation.
Coal in the Industrial Revolution
How coal became the fuel of the Industrial Revolution.
Brezhnev Doctrine
Brezhnev Doctrine - An Explanation of the Brezhnev Doctrine
A Beginner's Guide to the Protestant Reformation
This summary presents an outline of the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century, the religious schism which split western Christianity permanently.
How and Why France and England Fought for a...
A History of the Hundred Years War between England and France.
Community Charge / Poll Tax
Explanation about the Community Charge - Poll Tax
The Russian Revolution of 1917
Russian Revolution of 1917 - Introduction to the Russian Revolution of 1917
Overview: World War Two in Europe
World War Two in Europe - Overview of World War Two
The Location of Mozart's Grave
Mozart is often said to have been buried in a pauper's grave but, while we don't know where his remains are, we know what happened and the truth is different.
What Role Did Women Play in World War I?
World War One affected women's employment opportunities greatly, but only in the short term. In page one we examine what these wartime changes were,.
Iron in the Industrial Revolution
How this key resource contributed to the industrial revolution.
The Rulers of England
An annotated list of all the English kings and queens (and a few people you also need to know about.)
Why the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks fell out.
The Mensheviks and Bolsheviks in Russian History
Mental Cases by Wilfred Owen
Mental Cases by Wilfred Owen Who are these? Why sit they here in twilight? Wherefore rock they, purgatorial
The 12 Best War Games for Your PC
There are a lot of games for the PC which have drawn on Europe's rich history, and many of them use the waging of war as the source of interaction. This is a list of the best.
When Did the French Revolution End?
Exploring the end dates of the French Revolution
Top 5 Books: General Histories
The Best Books On General European History
Spain
History of Spain - Information on the History of Spain
The Marshall Plan - Rebuilding Western Europe
Marshall Plan - Introduction to the Marshall Plan
1. Pre-Revolutionary France
History of the French Revolution 1. Pre-Revolutionary France
Why did Weimar democracy fall and Hitler's...
A contents page for our narrative of Germany from 1919 to 1934.
Ustasha
A History of the Ustasha, terrorists turned war criminals turned ghosts.
The Seven Years War 1756 - 63
The Seven Years War - The Seven Years War in Europe
Rome
Rome Italy - History of Rome Italy
20 Key Leaders in European History
Key Leaders in European History
Elizabeth Báthory
Was Elizabeth Báthory really a serial killer? Or has she been falsely maligned? This is her history.
France
A starting point for French history.
Why Britain attempted to Tax American Colonists
Why Britain attempted to Tax American Colonists
Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: Introduction
Introduction to a timeline of the Russian Revolutions in 1917 and 1905
Iron Curtain
Iron Curtain - Definition of Iron Curtain
The Tudors
The Tudors - The Tudor Dynasty and Tudor England
31 European Women c.1500 - 1945
madame de sevigne josephine de beauharnais madame de maintenon artemisia gentileschi ada lovelace: 31 Women from European History 1500 to 1945 women womans ladies lady females womens history month
Monarchy
Information on European monarchy.
Top 10 Books: The Balkans
The Best Books on Balkan History
The Origins of Football (Soccer)
A history of the early years of football / soccer.
The Consequences of the Norman Conquest
The Consequences of the Norman Conquest - how England was changed by the events of 1066 and after.
Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: 1905
Russian Revolution Timeline - Timeline of the Russian Revolution of 1905
France in the American Revolutionary War
The American War of Independence and the critical role of France
Exposure by Wilfred Owen
Exposure by Wilfred Owen    I Our brains ache, in the merciless iced east winds that knife us... Wearied
A Comprehensive Timeline of World War I
This part of our World War 1 timeline covers the year the war began: 1914.
3. The Estates General and the Revolution of 1789
In page 3 of our History of the French Revolution we explain how the Estates General met in 1789, and how the revolution truly began with calls for a National Assembly.
Key Events in Spanish History
Key Events in Spanish History
The Development of Banking in the Industrial...
How did the development of banking and finance help the industrial revolution?
The Berlin Wall
This profile of the Berlin Wall explains why the Cold War caused it's creation, how it divided the city of Berlin, and how it finally came to be pulled down.
Top 10 Books: Modern Russia - The Revolution...
The best books on revolutionary and modern Russia
What Caused the French Revolution?
In this part of our history of the French Revolution we look at the events of the 1780s which destabilized France and led to the revolution starting.
Books: Spain - The Civil War
The best books on the Spanish Civil War
The Zimmermann Telegram
This profile explains what the Zimmermann Telegram was, why it was sent and why the threat to the US was considered necessary, how it was revealed to the US public, and how their anger led to entry into World War 1. There is also the full translated text of the Telegram.
Aircraft in World War 1
Aircraft established themselves as a vital part of the military in World War 1.
Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About the...
On this page in our history and discussion of the guillotine we look at machines for decapitation which pre-date the French Revolution.
Mutually Assured Destruction
Mutually Assured Destruction - Definition of Mutually Assured Destruction
The Sultans of the Ottoman Empire: c.1300 to 1924
A list of the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire with summaries of each.
The First Computer: Charles Babbage’s...
Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine has a great claim on being the first computer. This explains who he was, and what it was.
Origins of the Cold War in Europe
This examination of the origins of the Cold War in Europe starts in 1917 and proceeds through the pressures of World War 2 and the aftermath, explaining how much of the world could be facing mutually assured destruction.
Key European Dictators from the Twentieth Century
Key Twentieth Century European Dictators
The History of 'Keep Calm and Carry On'
The History of the British ‘Keep Calm and Carry On’ poster, which was never used in World War 2.
The Duma
The Duma in Russian history. European History.
The Key Events in the History of France
France has a long and rich history, but we've broken it down into twenty six key events which span from c.800 BCE to the twentieth century.
Venice
Venice Italy - A History of Venice Italy
The Anglo-German Naval Race
The Anglo-German Naval Race has been cited as a key factor in the start of World War 1. Here we explain what happened.
Yugoslavia
Key events in the history of the now vanished Yugoslavia.
Railways burst into life during the Industrial...
Railways burst into life during the Industrial Revolution. This is how.
Carloman of the Western Franks: Who was he?
Carloman didn't outlive his teenage brother, and fellow king, for long.
The Hitler Youth and the Indoctrination of...
In order to create his perfect society, Hitler introduced a set of pseudo-military groups for children: the Hitler Youth.
The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
This page summarizes the events of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and links to detailed narratives.
Top 10 Books: About the Napoleonic Wars
The wars which bear Napoleon Bonaparte’s name have captivated the world. Here is a selection of the best literature on this historical period.
The Countries Involved in World War 1
Countries Involved in World War 1 - Countries of World War 1 Listed by Continent
Berlin Blockade / Berlin Airlift
The Berlin Blockade was an early stress point in the Cold War and a clear victory for organized air power thanks to the West's airlift.
The Build Up to War: The Events That Led to...
This part of our World War 1 timeline looks at events relevant to the war pre-1914.
The Vikings - An Overview
The Vikings - An Overview of the Vikings
Top 8 Best PC Games - Empire Building
This list of the best PC Empire Building games with a European flavor.
Francisco Franco
The life, career, personality and death of the Spanish Dictator Francisco Franco. A look at the Spanish Civil War
This Day In European History - Index
What Happened On This Day In European History: births and deaths encyclopedia britannica sneak peek notable events european history
Who Really Won World War 2 in Europe?
Who Really Won World War 2 in Europe?
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England - Biography of Elizabeth I
Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: 1914 - 1916
Russian Revolution Timeline - Timeline of Russa in 1914-16
Canals were at their height during the...
Canals were at their height during the Industrial Revolution. This is how.
Did Cotton drive the Industrial Revolution, or...
Did Cotton drive the Industrial Revolution, or are things more complicated?
Containment
Containment - Definition of Containment
The Sussex Pledge (1916)
Germany and the United States of America were on a collision course during World War One which the Sussex Pledge temporarily halted. This article explains what happened, and who broke the Pledge to bring the US into the conflict.
Estates General
Estates General - Definition of Estates General
Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann - Biography of Adolf Eichmann
How did the Nazis treat women?
An look at how the Nazis treated women during their years in power.
Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher - Biography of Margaret Thatcher

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