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European History: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
Was Adolf Hitler a Socialist? Debunking a...
Hitler is often accused of being a socialist. This article explains why he wasn't.
What Were the Major Alliances of World War I?
The Major Alliances of World War One: who and how Europe divided in 1914.
What Events Led to the Russian Revolution?
These were the Causes of the Russian Revolution
What Were the Major Causes of the Renaissance?
This discussion of the causes of the Renaissance looks at seven key factors which helped thes era defining movement begin and develop.
Was World War I Actually a 'World' War?
A complete list of the many countries involved in World War 1 including a map and different ways of presenting the information.
A Beginner's Guide to World War I
World War 1 101 - An Introduction to World War 1
Learn More About Napoleon Bonaparte, the Great...
This biography of Napoleon Bonaparte condenses his life down to the essentials in three short pages, and links to extra material on his wars and government.
Causes and Preconditions for the Industrial...
What caused the Industrial Revolution, what was Britain like before it, and is there a set of pre-conditions?
How did the Industrial Revolution Change...
How did the Industrial Revolution Change Britain's Population?
Important Dates and Events in Renaissance History
This timeline of the Renaissance contains key dates in cultural history alongside political developments and links to discussions.
Renaissance Humanism
An explanation of Renaissance Humanism and why it was important.
Did the Treaty of Versailles Contribute to...
A look at a major controversy of twentieth century history: did the Treaty of Versailles contribute to Hitler's rise to power?
Adolf Hitler: A Brief Biography
This quick introduction to German dictator Adolf Hitler traces his life through his rise to power to starting World War 2, through his ultimate defeat to his death.
What was Absolutism?
An Introduction to Absolutism in European History.
What did Hitler Believe?
A look at the confusing mixture of ideas which we believe drove Hitler.
Who Were the Borgias?
The Borgias - A History of the Borgias
Who Supported Hitler and Why?
An examination of why many of the German people supported Hitler.
World War I's Treaty of Versailles Explained
The Treaty of Versailles ended World War One and has been accused of starting World War Two. This article outlines the motivations behind the treaty, the key points, and the results.
A Beginner's Guide to the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution - An Overview of The Industrial Revolution
Hitler’s Rise to Power: Timeline
A ready reference for the dates of Hitler's Rise to Power.
The Devastating Impact of the French Revolution...
Changes caused by the French Revolution on France
Debunking the Myths: How Catherine the Great...
This entry in our historical myths series examines two legends about the death of Catherine the Great: one involving horses and one toilets.
A Beginner's Guide to the French Revolution
This brief account of the French Revolution explains all the key events, links to a larger narrative history, and explains the consequences.
A Beginner's Guide to the Enlightenment
An explanation of the Enlightenment
The 10 Best World War II Documentaries
A selection of documentaries about Europe and World War 2.
The Sussex Pledge (1916)
Germany and the United States of America were on a collision course during World War One which the Sussex Pledge temporarily halted. This article explains what happened, and who broke the Pledge to bring the US into the conflict.
What do CE, BCE, AD and BC mean?
A look at the two main dating systems in European history.
Consequences of World War One
A look at the major consequences of World War One.
An Introduction to the Cold War in Europe
This profile of the Cold War explains how it began after World War 2, why it was 'Cold', what happened in Europe and how it ended peacefully.
The Truth Behind the 300 Who Held Thermopylae
Historical Myths - The 300 of Thermopylae - Find out the true figure
History of the European Union
History of the European Union- The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union between European countries.
Rulers of France - French kings emperors and...
Rulers of France - French kings emperors and presidents
Debunking the Myths: How Short Was Napoleon?
Was Napoleon Bonaparte Short? - The Height and Possible Myth of the Short Napoleon Bonaparte
We all know the 'Third Riech', but what were...
The Other Riechs - An explanation of the three 'German' Reichs and how they relate.
Coal in the Industrial Revolution
How coal became the fuel of the Industrial Revolution.
The Effects of the American Revolutionary War...
Britain and the American Revolutionary War
A Biography of Vlad the Impaler / Vlad III...
Vlad the Impaler - Information on Vlad the Impaler - Dracula - Tepes
When Did the French Revolution End?
Exploring the end dates of the French Revolution
A Beginner's Guide to the Renaissance
This page explains the key elements of the most famous renaissance, c. 1400 - 1600, and links to greater detail.
How Napoleon became Emperor
How did Napoleon persuade France to allow him to become Emperor? This article explains why.
Who were the November Criminals (and why...
The November Criminals were nothing of the sort, but the Germans who negotiated their nations surrender in World War One. So why did they get that name?
What Countries Fought in the First World War?
This is an alphabetical listing of every country who declared war, had war declared for them, or found themselves invaded or involved in World War 1.
Railways burst into life during the Industrial...
Railways burst into life during the Industrial Revolution. This is how.
Iron in the Industrial Revolution
How this key resource contributed to the industrial revolution.
The Zimmermann Telegram
This profile explains what the Zimmermann Telegram was, why it was sent and why the threat to the US was considered necessary, how it was revealed to the US public, and how their anger led to entry into World War 1. There is also the full translated text of the Telegram.
France in the American Revolutionary War
The American War of Independence and the critical role of France
Why Britain attempted to Tax American Colonists
Why Britain attempted to Tax American Colonists
Aftermath of the Hundred Years War
Aftermath of the Hundred Years War - Aftermath of the Hundred Years War
Aircraft in World War 1
Aircraft established themselves as a vital part of the military in World War 1.
18 Key Thinkers of the Enlightenment
A listing of eighteen key thinkers of the Enlightenment from across Europe with biographical sketches for each.
The Russian Revolution of 1917
Russian Revolution of 1917 - Introduction to the Russian Revolution of 1917
Key Events in Spanish History
Key Events in Spanish History
The Belle Époque ("Beautiful Age")
The Belle Epoque in France. European History.
France
A starting point for French history.
A Beginner's Guide to the Black Death
What was the Black Death? Did it really kill a third of Europe's population?
The Creation of Britain’s Welfare State
This article explains how Britain created the 'Welfare State', a cradle to the grave system of social support.
The Sharpe Books: Bernard Cornwell's Historical...
Sharpe - The Sharpe Books in Chronological Order
The Consequences of the Norman Conquest
The Consequences of the Norman Conquest - how England was changed by the events of 1066 and after.
Did Cotton drive the Industrial Revolution, or...
Did Cotton drive the Industrial Revolution, or are things more complicated?
What Is a Monarchy?
Information on European monarchy.
What Role Did Women Play in World War I?
World War One affected women's employment opportunities greatly, but only in the short term. In page one we examine what these wartime changes were,.
How and Why France and England Fought for a...
A History of the Hundred Years War between England and France.
A Beginner's Guide to the Protestant Reformation
This summary presents an outline of the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century, the religious schism which split western Christianity permanently.
Debunking the Myths: Did Vikings Actually Wear...
Did Vikings Wear Horned Helmets? - The Truth Behind Vikings Horned Helmets
Canals were at their height during the...
Canals were at their height during the Industrial Revolution. This is how.
Napoleonic Code / Code Napoleon
A description of the Napoleonic Code / Code Napoleon and why it is so important. Learn more about this historical legal code enacted by Napoleon in 1804.
Girolamo Savonarola 1452 – 1498
Preacher and friar Girolamo Savonarola came to practically rule Florence before a fall from power and execution. This is a biography.
Why the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks fell out.
The Mensheviks and Bolsheviks in Russian History
The Anglo-German Naval Race
The Anglo-German Naval Race has been cited as a key factor in the start of World War 1. Here we explain what happened.
Debunking the Myths: How Stalin Really Died
Did Stalin really die unaffected by the years of terror and death?
Every Country Involved in WW1 Listed: Why it...
This page contains the countries who, sometimes only technically, took part in of World War 1 listed by their continent.
The Creation of Hitler's Dictatorship
How Hitler went from being appointed Chancellor to ruling a one party dictatorship.
The Best Books on World War I - The Great War
The literature about World War One is vast, but I feel these are the best books for a range of readers.
The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
This page summarizes the events of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and links to detailed narratives.
The Wars of the Former Yugoslavia
A narrative history of the wars of the Former Yugoslavia, fought in the 1990s.
Coal Mining: Living and Working Conditions in...
Coal was vital to the Industrial Revolution, but miners faced many problems.
1. Pre-Revolutionary France
History of the French Revolution 1. Pre-Revolutionary France
The Duma
The Duma in Russian history. European History.
Did Marie Antoinette say "Let Them Eat Cake"?
Marie Antoinette and Let them eat cake - The truth behind the phrase
A Comprehensive Timeline of World War I
This part of our World War 1 timeline covers the year the war began: 1914.
The Norman Conquest of 1066
An examination of the Norman Conquest of 1066 which changed English history.
The Development of Banking in the Industrial...
How did the development of banking and finance help the industrial revolution?
Different ways to read Hornblower.
Horatio Hornblower - In Which Order Should You Read the Horatio Hornblower Novels?
1812: Napoleon's Invasion of Russia
A narrate of the events of 1812, Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia.
Spain
History of Spain - Information on the History of Spain
Top 10 Books: French Revolution
Best Books on the French Revolution
Francisco Franco
The life, career, personality and death of the Spanish Dictator Francisco Franco. A look at the Spanish Civil War
The Marshall Plan - Rebuilding Western Europe
Marshall Plan - Introduction to the Marshall Plan
3. The Estates General and the Revolution of 1789
In page 3 of our History of the French Revolution we explain how the Estates General met in 1789, and how the revolution truly began with calls for a National Assembly.
History of the French Revolution - Contents
A History of the French Revolution: Contents Page
Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points
Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points - an explanation and the full text.
Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: 1905
Russian Revolution Timeline - Timeline of the Russian Revolution of 1905
Debunking the Myths: Does the Severed Head of a...
How long does a guillotined head remains alive?
Find Out Just How Many People Lost Their Lives...
World War 1 saw casualty figures in the millions, and this chart lists the totals mobilized, killed, wounded and a percentage calculation.
The Location of Mozart's Grave
Mozart is often said to have been buried in a pauper's grave but, while we don't know where his remains are, we know what happened and the truth is different.
The Key Events in the History of France
France has a long and rich history, but we've broken it down into twenty six key events which span from c.800 BCE to the twentieth century.
When Did World War II End?
When did World War 2 End - End of World War 2
NATO
NATO - Information on NATO the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Rome
Rome Italy - History of Rome Italy
Containment
Containment - Definition of Containment
Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About the...
On this page in our history and discussion of the guillotine we look at machines for decapitation which pre-date the French Revolution.
Learn about Benito Mussolini, the Infamous...
Benito Mussolini - Biography of Benito Mussolini
The Hitler Youth and the Indoctrination of...
In order to create his perfect society, Hitler introduced a set of pseudo-military groups for children: the Hitler Youth.
Why did Weimar democracy fall and Hitler's...
A contents page for our narrative of Germany from 1919 to 1934.
What Caused the French Revolution?
In this part of our history of the French Revolution we look at the events of the 1780s which destabilized France and led to the revolution starting.
The French Revolutionary Wars / War of the...
A narrative of the French Revolutionary Wars, which became the war of the First Coalition.
The Causes and War Aims of World War One
A guide to the causes of World War One, what each of the major belligerents wanted from it.
20 Key Leaders in European History
Key Leaders in European History
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England - Biography of Elizabeth I
The Berlin Wall
This profile of the Berlin Wall explains why the Cold War caused it's creation, how it divided the city of Berlin, and how it finally came to be pulled down.
The Countries Involved in World War 1
Countries involved in the First World War - the British Empire
Who was Bede, and what made him the greatest...
The Venerable Bede was a giant of medieval scholarship, and a historian of great importance. He was also a seventh century monk.
Brezhnev Doctrine
Brezhnev Doctrine - An Explanation of the Brezhnev Doctrine
The Harrying of the North 1069 – 70
The Harrying of the North was William I's attempt to subdue northern England, but how brutal was it?
The French-Indian War
The French-Indian War - Britain and France in the The French-Indian War in America
The Build Up to War: The Events That Led to...
This part of our World War 1 timeline looks at events relevant to the war pre-1914.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare and How it Lost...
Unrestricted submarine warfare: one of the greatest strategic mistakes of the 20th century.
The Tudors
The Tudors - The Tudor Dynasty and Tudor England
Gleischaltung: the Nazi Governance of Germany
An examination of the confusing way Nazi Germany was governed.
Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: Introduction
Introduction to a timeline of the Russian Revolutions in 1917 and 1905
Key Events in Italian History
Key Events in Italian History
The Continental System
Did the Continental System, Napoleon's attempt to cripple Britain economically, work?
How did Public Health develop during the...
How did Public Health develop during the Industrial Revolution?
Steam in the Industrial Revolution
Was steam a key part of the Industrial Revolution, or was it only later that it changed the world?
Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety - Definition of Committee of Public Safety
Estates General
Estates General - Definition of Estates General
31 European Women c.1500 - 1945
madame de sevigne josephine de beauharnais madame de maintenon artemisia gentileschi ada lovelace: 31 Women from European History 1500 to 1945 women womans ladies lady females womens history month
Did Medieval People Believe in a Flat Earth?
Flat Earth - Did Medieval People Believe in a Flat Earth?
World War One at Sea
What happened at sea during World War One.
Key Battles of World War One
This list collects together the dates of all the key battles of World War One, and links where relevant to narratives.
Did Mussolini Get the Trains Running on Time?
Did Mussolini get the Trains Running on Time - Debunking Mussolini and the Trains
The Seven Years War 1756 - 63
The Seven Years War - The Seven Years War in Europe
Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: 1914 - 1916
Russian Revolution Timeline - Timeline of Russa in 1914-16
Community Charge / Poll Tax
Explanation about the Community Charge - Poll Tax
How did the Nazis treat women?
An look at how the Nazis treated women during their years in power.
Who Were The Doughboys of World War 1?
Who were the Doughboys? What did they do and how did they get their name?
Key Figures of World War One
World War 1 lasted just over four years, and included many belligerent nations. Consequently, there are a lot of famous names involved in this listing
Italy
History of Italy - Italy Information on History
What was Volksgemeinschaft?
Volksgemeinschaft was an ideal in Nazi ideology, and this explains what it wanted.
Top 13 Historical Myths Debunked
Top historical myths debunked
Indulgences and their Role in the Reformation
Indulgences were important in the start of the Reformation; this explains what they were.
What countries are in the European Union?
Countries in the European Union - List of Countries in the European Union
Venice
Venice Italy - A History of Venice Italy
Why Churchill Lost the 1945 Election
An explanation of why Winston Churchill lost the 1945 election in Britain.
The Sultans of the Ottoman Empire: c.1300 to 1924
A list of the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire with summaries of each.
What is the Controversy about Allied Strategic...
What is the Controversy about Allied Strategic Bombing in World War Two?
Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: 1917 -...
Russian Revolution Timeline 1917 Part 2
The Concordat of 1801
The Concordat of 1801 was between Napoleon's France and the Papacy, officially attempting to heal the wounds of the revolution.
Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: 1906 - 1913
Russian Revolution Timeline - Timeline of the Russian Revolution 1906 - 1913
Key Events in Portuguese History
Key Events in Portuguese History - Portugal

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