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European History: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
What Were the Major Causes of the Renaissance?
This discussion of the causes of the Renaissance looks at seven key factors which helped thes era defining movement begin and develop.
What Were the Major Alliances of World War I?
The Major Alliances of World War One: who and how Europe divided in 1914.
Debunking the Myths: How Catherine the Great...
This entry in our historical myths series examines two legends about the death of Catherine the Great: one involving horses and one toilets.
Was World War I Actually a 'World' War?
A complete list of the many countries involved in World War 1 including a map and different ways of presenting the information.
Renaissance Humanism
An explanation of Renaissance Humanism and why it was important.
A Beginner's Guide to World War I
World War 1 101 - An Introduction to World War 1
Learn More About Napoleon Bonaparte, the Great...
This biography of Napoleon Bonaparte condenses his life down to the essentials in three short pages, and links to extra material on his wars and government.
Important Dates and Events in Renaissance History
This timeline of the Renaissance contains key dates in cultural history alongside political developments and links to discussions.
What Events Led to the Russian Revolution?
These were the Causes of the Russian Revolution
How did the Industrial Revolution Change...
How did the Industrial Revolution Change Britain's Population?
Did the Treaty of Versailles Contribute to...
A look at a major controversy of twentieth century history: did the Treaty of Versailles contribute to Hitler's rise to power?
Causes and Preconditions for the Industrial...
What caused the Industrial Revolution, what was Britain like before it, and is there a set of pre-conditions?
We all know the 'Third Riech', but what were...
The Other Riechs - An explanation of the three 'German' Reichs and how they relate.
Was Adolf Hitler a Socialist? Debunking a...
Hitler is often accused of being a socialist. This article explains why he wasn't.
The 10 Best World War II Documentaries
A selection of documentaries about Europe and World War 2.
A Beginner's Guide to the Enlightenment
An explanation of the Enlightenment
A Beginner's Guide to the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution - An Overview of The Industrial Revolution
History of the European Union
History of the European Union- The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union between European countries.
Adolf Hitler: A Brief Biography
This quick introduction to German dictator Adolf Hitler traces his life through his rise to power to starting World War 2, through his ultimate defeat to his death.
The Truth Behind the 300 Who Held Thermopylae
Historical Myths - The 300 of Thermopylae - Find out the true figure
World War I's Treaty of Versailles Explained
The Treaty of Versailles ended World War One and has been accused of starting World War Two. This article outlines the motivations behind the treaty, the key points, and the results.
The Effects of the American Revolutionary War...
Britain and the American Revolutionary War
Who Supported Hitler and Why?
An examination of why many of the German people supported Hitler.
A Beginner's Guide to the French Revolution
This brief account of the French Revolution explains all the key events, links to a larger narrative history, and explains the consequences.
The Devastating Impact of the French Revolution...
Changes caused by the French Revolution on France
Aftermath of the Hundred Years War
Aftermath of the Hundred Years War - Aftermath of the Hundred Years War
What was Absolutism?
An Introduction to Absolutism in European History.
Vlad the Impaler / Vlad III Dracula / Vlad Tepes
Vlad the Impaler - Information on Vlad the Impaler - Dracula - Tepes
A Beginner's Guide to the Renaissance
This page explains the key elements of the most famous renaissance, c. 1400 - 1600, and links to greater detail.
France in the American Revolutionary War
The American War of Independence and the critical role of France
Rulers of France - French kings emperors and...
Rulers of France - French kings emperors and presidents
Consequences of World War One
A look at the major consequences of World War One.
Who Were the Borgias?
The Borgias - A History of the Borgias
The Sussex Pledge (1916)
Germany and the United States of America were on a collision course during World War One which the Sussex Pledge temporarily halted. This article explains what happened, and who broke the Pledge to bring the US into the conflict.
Debunking the Myths: How Short Was Napoleon?
Was Napoleon Bonaparte Short? - The Height and Possible Myth of the Short Napoleon Bonaparte
What Countries Fought in the First World War?
This is an alphabetical listing of every country who declared war, had war declared for them, or found themselves invaded or involved in World War 1.
The Sharpe Books: Bernard Cornwell's Historical...
Sharpe - The Sharpe Books in Chronological Order
An Introduction to the Cold War in Europe
This profile of the Cold War explains how it began after World War 2, why it was 'Cold', what happened in Europe and how it ended peacefully.
What Role Did Women Play in World War I?
World War One affected women's employment opportunities greatly, but only in the short term. In page one we examine what these wartime changes were,.
The Zimmermann Telegram
This profile explains what the Zimmermann Telegram was, why it was sent and why the threat to the US was considered necessary, how it was revealed to the US public, and how their anger led to entry into World War 1. There is also the full translated text of the Telegram.
Hitler’s Rise to Power: Timeline
A ready reference for the dates of Hitler's Rise to Power.
A Beginner's Guide to the Black Death
What was the Black Death? Did it really kill a third of Europe's population?
How Napoleon became Emperor
How did Napoleon persuade France to allow him to become Emperor? This article explains why.
Did Marie Antoinette say "Let Them Eat Cake"?
Marie Antoinette and Let them eat cake - The truth behind the phrase
How and Why France and England Fought for a...
A History of the Hundred Years War between England and France.
Coal in the Industrial Revolution
How coal became the fuel of the Industrial Revolution.
The Belle Époque ("Beautiful Age")
The Belle Epoque in France. European History.
When Did the French Revolution End?
Exploring the end dates of the French Revolution
The Wars of the Former Yugoslavia
A narrative history of the wars of the Former Yugoslavia, fought in the 1990s.
What Does BCE Stand for and How Is It Different...
BCE - Before Common Era - is a term used in modern dating systems. Find out what it means, and why it is used.
The Marshall Plan - Rebuilding Western Europe
Marshall Plan - Introduction to the Marshall Plan
The Elgin Marbles / Parthenon Sculptures
Elgin Marbles - History of the The Elgin Marbles
The Consequences of the Norman Conquest
The Consequences of the Norman Conquest - how England was changed by the events of 1066 and after.
The Norman Conquest of 1066
An examination of the Norman Conquest of 1066 which changed English history.
Why Britain attempted to Tax American Colonists
Why Britain attempted to Tax American Colonists
A starting point for French history.
The Best Books on World War I - The Great War
The literature about World War One is vast, but I feel these are the best books for a range of readers.
What Is a Monarchy?
Information on European monarchy.
What did Hitler Believe?
A look at the confusing mixture of ideas which we believe drove Hitler.
Did Cotton drive the Industrial Revolution, or...
Did Cotton drive the Industrial Revolution, or are things more complicated?
Debunking the Myths: How Stalin Really Died
Did Stalin really die unaffected by the years of terror and death?
NATO - Information on NATO the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
18 Key Thinkers of the Enlightenment
A listing of eighteen key thinkers of the Enlightenment from across Europe with biographical sketches for each.
Every Country Involved in WW1 Listed: Why it...
This page contains the countries who, sometimes only technically, took part in of World War 1 listed by their continent.
Aircraft in World War 1
Aircraft established themselves as a vital part of the military in World War 1.
Iron in the Industrial Revolution
How this key resource contributed to the industrial revolution.
Why did Weimar democracy fall and Hitler's...
A contents page for our narrative of Germany from 1919 to 1934.
Top 10 Books: French Revolution
Best Books on the French Revolution
History of Spain - Information on the History of Spain
Napoleonic Code / Code Napoleon
A description of the Napoleonic Code / Code Napoleon and why it is so important. Learn more about this historical legal code enacted by Napoleon in 1804.
Key Events in Spanish History
Key Events in Spanish History
A Comprehensive Timeline of World War I
This part of our World War 1 timeline covers the year the war began: 1914.
The November Criminals
An explanation of why this group of Germans became known as the November Criminals.
The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
This page summarizes the events of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and links to detailed narratives.
Girolamo Savonarola 1452 – 1498
Preacher and friar Girolamo Savonarola came to practically rule Florence before a fall from power and execution. This is a biography.
Debunking the Myths: Does the Severed Head of a...
How long does a guillotined head remains alive?
Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points
Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points - an explanation and the full text.
The Causes and War Aims of World War One
The Causes and War Aims of World War One - Part 2. Page 2.
The Development of Banking in the Industrial...
How did the development of banking and finance help the industrial revolution?
Why the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks fell out.
The Mensheviks and Bolsheviks in Russian History
Coal Mining: Living and Working Conditions in...
Coal was vital to the Industrial Revolution, but miners faced many problems.
Rome Italy - History of Rome Italy
What Caused the French Revolution?
In this part of our history of the French Revolution we look at the events of the 1780s which destabilized France and led to the revolution starting.
The Anglo-German Naval Race
The Anglo-German Naval Race has been cited as a key factor in the start of World War 1. Here we explain what happened.
Find Out Just How Many People Lost Their Lives...
World War 1 saw casualty figures in the millions, and this chart lists the totals mobilized, killed, wounded and a percentage calculation.
A Beginner's Guide to the Protestant Reformation
This summary presents an outline of the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century, the religious schism which split western Christianity permanently.
The French Revolutionary Wars / War of the...
A narrative of the French Revolutionary Wars, which became the war of the First Coalition.
Brezhnev Doctrine
Brezhnev Doctrine - An Explanation of the Brezhnev Doctrine
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England - Biography of Elizabeth I
Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About the...
On this page in our history and discussion of the guillotine we look at machines for decapitation which pre-date the French Revolution.
History of the French Revolution - Contents
A History of the French Revolution: Contents Page
Railways burst into life during the Industrial...
Railways burst into life during the Industrial Revolution. This is how.
The French-Indian War
The French-Indian War - Britain and France in the The French-Indian War in America
Francisco Franco
The life, career, personality and death of the Spanish Dictator Francisco Franco. A look at the Spanish Civil War
Canals were at their height during the...
Canals were at their height during the Industrial Revolution. This is how.
The Tudors
The Tudors - The Tudor Dynasty and Tudor England
Debunking the Myths: Did Vikings Actually Wear...
Did Vikings Wear Horned Helmets? - The Truth Behind Vikings Horned Helmets
1. Pre-Revolutionary France
History of the French Revolution 1. Pre-Revolutionary France
The Continental System
Did the Continental System, Napoleon's attempt to cripple Britain economically, work?
Women in World War 1
Changing voting opportunity was just one way women were affected by World War One; this article looks at their multi-faceted experiences during the conflict.
The Diplomatic Revolution 1756
The Diplomatic Revolution - The Seven Years War and the Diplomatic Revolution
The Creation of Britain’s Welfare State
This article explains how Britain created the 'Welfare State', a cradle to the grave system of social support.
What countries are in the European Union?
Countries in the European Union - List of Countries in the European Union
The Hitler Youth and the Indoctrination of...
In order to create his perfect society, Hitler introduced a set of pseudo-military groups for children: the Hitler Youth.
31 European Women c.1500 - 1945
madame de sevigne josephine de beauharnais madame de maintenon artemisia gentileschi ada lovelace: 31 Women from European History 1500 to 1945 women womans ladies lady females womens history month
History of Italy - Italy Information on History
Key events in the history of the now vanished Yugoslavia.
The Key Events in the History of France
France has a long and rich history, but we've broken it down into twenty six key events which span from c.800 BCE to the twentieth century.
The Russian Revolution of 1917
Russian Revolution of 1917 - Introduction to the Russian Revolution of 1917
The Northern Renaissance
Not all the great artworks and developments of the renaissance occurred in or around Italy; this article discusses the 'Northern Renaissance'.
The Countries Involved in World War 1
Countries involved in the First World War - the British Empire
Venice Italy - A History of Venice Italy
William the Conqueror
A biography of William the Conqueror, Norman Duke and English King via the Norman Conquest.
Different ways to read Hornblower.
Horatio Hornblower - In Which Order Should You Read the Horatio Hornblower Novels?
World War One at Sea
What happened at sea during World War One.
The Berlin Wall
This profile of the Berlin Wall explains why the Cold War caused it's creation, how it divided the city of Berlin, and how it finally came to be pulled down.
Who Were The Doughboys of World War 1?
Who were the Doughboys? What did they do and how did they get their name?
Did Medieval People Believe in a Flat Earth?
Flat Earth - Did Medieval People Believe in a Flat Earth?
3. The Estates General and the Revolution of 1789
In page 3 of our History of the French Revolution we explain how the Estates General met in 1789, and how the revolution truly began with calls for a National Assembly.
The Donation of Constantine
What was the Donation of Constantine, how was the fraud discovered, and why did it last so long?
The Harrying of the North 1069 – 70
The Harrying of the North was William I's attempt to subdue northern England, but how brutal was it?
Community Charge / Poll Tax
Explanation about the Community Charge - Poll Tax
The Battle of Waterloo Part 2: The Battle
An account of how the Battle of Waterloo was fought, the flashpoints and the decisions, concluding with whether the battle mattered.
The Battle of Agincourt 1415: A History of the...
One of the iconic English vs French battles, this time won by weather, longbows and social convention.
The Seven Years War 1756 - 63
The Seven Years War - The Seven Years War in Europe
The Duma
The Duma in Russian history. European History.
Key Figures of World War One
World War 1 lasted just over four years, and included many belligerent nations. Consequently, there are a lot of famous names involved in this listing
Gleischaltung: the Nazi Governance of Germany
An examination of the confusing way Nazi Germany was governed.
Key Events in Italian History
Key Events in Italian History
They host the Commonwealth Games, but what is...
The Commonwealth is an association of 53 independent nations, all but one former British colonies, with substantial economic ties and a shared history.
When Did World War II End?
When did World War 2 End - End of World War 2
Estates General
Estates General - Definition of Estates General
Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety - Definition of Committee of Public Safety
Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: 1905
Russian Revolution Timeline - Timeline of the Russian Revolution of 1905
The meaning of the dating label A.D.
AD - Anno Domini - is part of a dating system used in much of the world. This article explains what the Latin stands for, and a problem with it.
Is Ring A Ring A Roses about the Plague?
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >The Myth: The
Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann - Biography of Adolf Eichmann
Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: Introduction
Introduction to a timeline of the Russian Revolutions in 1917 and 1905
The Creation of Hitler's Dictatorship
How Hitler went from being appointed Chancellor to ruling a one party dictatorship.
King John
A biography of King John of England, a man with a very poor reputation to this day.
How did Public Health develop during the...
How did Public Health develop during the Industrial Revolution?
Why Churchill Lost the 1945 Election
An explanation of why Winston Churchill lost the 1945 election in Britain.
The Build Up to War: The Events That Led to...
This part of our World War 1 timeline looks at events relevant to the war pre-1914.
The Battle of Hastings 1066
An account of the Battle of Hastings, 1066, which allowed the Norman Conquest of England.
Containment - Definition of Containment
Elizabeth Báthory
Was Elizabeth Báthory really a serial killer? Or has she been falsely maligned? This is her history.
Henry VIII of England
King of England from 1509 – 1547, he is best known for having six wives and breaking the English church away from Roman Catholicism.
Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact - Definition of the Warsaw Pact
Origin of the word ‘Protestant’
Origin of the word Protestant. European History.
7. The Terror 1793 - 94
This section of our History of the French Revolution discusses the most infamous era: when the leaders of France decided to rule through Terror, killing people en masse.

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