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The Rulers of Spain: From 1035 Until 2000


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Although Muslim forces conquered much of the Iberian Peninsula during the eighth century, several Christian enclaves remained, composed of Visigoths and Franks. These groups developed into new kingdoms, and during the tenth century they began a process of re-conquest. As these kingdoms expanded, two came to dominate: Castile and Aragon. The early history of modern Spain is very much in the relationship between these two powers that were united - in theory at least - in 1516.

This is a chronological list of the people who have ruled Spain; the dates given are the periods of said rule. The list begins with the respective rulers of Castile and Aragon, before moving on to those of the united Spain.

Castile and León
1035 - 1065 Ferdinand I (León 1037 - 65)
1065 - 1072 Sancho II (Castile only)
1072 - 1109 Alfonso VI (León 1065 - 1109)
1109 - 1126 Urraca
1126 - 1157 Alfonso VII
1157 - 1158 Sancho III (Castile only)
1157 - 1188 Ferdinand II (León only)
1158 - 1214 Alfonso VIII (Castile only)
1188 - 1230 Alfonso IX (León only)
1214 - 1217 Henry I (Castile only)
1217 - 1252 Ferdinand III (León 1230 - 1252)
1252 - 1284 Alfonso X
1284 - 1295 Sancho IV
1295 - 1312 Ferdinand IV
1312 - 1350 Alfonso XI
1350 - 1369 Peter the Cruel
1369 - 1379 Henry II of Trastamara
1379 - 1390 John I
1390 - 1406 Henry III
1406 - 1454 John II
1454 - 1474 Henry IV
1474 - 1504 Isabella
1504 - 1506 Joanna the Mad (Habsburg)
1506 Phillip I
1506 - 1516 Ferdinand II (of Aragon, as regent for Joanna the Mad)

Aragon
1035 - 1063 Ramiro I
1063 - 1094 Sancho Ramirez
1094 - 1104 Peter I
1104 - 1134 Alfonso I
1134 - 1137 Ramiro II
1137 - 1162 Petronilla
1162 - 1196 Alfonso II
1196 - 1213 Peter II
1213 - 1276 James I
1276 - 1285 Peter III
1285 - 1291 Alfonso III
1291 - 1327 James II
1327 - 1336 Alfonso IV
1336 - 1387 Peter IV
1387 - 1395 John I
1395 - 1410 Martin I
1412 - 1416 Ferdinand
1416 - 1458 Alfonso V
1458 - 1479 John II
1479 - 1516 Ferdinand II

Unified 'Spain'
Habsburg Dynasty
1516 - 1556 Charles I (Emperor Charles V)
1556 - 1598 Philip II
1598 - 1621 Philip III
1621 - 1665 Philip IV
1665 - 1700 Charles II
Bourbon Dynasty
1700 - 1724 Philip V
1724 Louis I
1724 - 1746 Philip V (2nd time)
1746 - 1759 Ferdinand VI
1759 - 1788 Charles III
1788 - 1808 Charles IV
1808 Ferdinand VII
French Rule
1808 - 1813 Joseph Bonaparte
Bourbon Dynasty
1814 - 1833 Ferdinand VII
1833 - 1868 Isabella II
1868 - 1874
1869 - 1870 Francisco Serrano (regent)
1870 - 1873 Amadeus (elected)
1873 - 1874 First Republic
Bourbon Dynasty
1874 - 1885 Alfonso XII
1886 - 1931 Alfonso XIII
Second Republic (presidents)
1931 - 1936 Niceto Alcala Zamora y Torres
1936 - 1939 Manuel Azaña
Dictatorship
1939 - 1975 General Francisco Franco
Bourbon Dynasty
1975 - Juan Carlos I

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