By Robert Wilde
World War 1
Between 1914 and 1918 conflict raged across Europe and the Middle East, disfiguring the landscape, killing over eight million people and transforming our concept of war.
- Introduction to World War 1
- Causes of World War 1
- The Western Front
- Timeline of World War 1
- Glossary of World War 1
- Casualties of World War 1
- Countries of World War 1
- The Christmas Truce of 1914
- The Treaty of Versailles
- Key Figures of World War One
- Women in World War 1
- Women and Work in World War 1
- World War 1 - Overview
- Gas and Tanks
- The Eastern Front
- The Somme
- Key Battles of World War One
World War 2
While World War 2 was a truly global conflict, one of the two main belligerents was based in central Europe and conflict engulfed almost the whole continent, from western France to eastern Russia, from the Mediterranean to Arctic waters.
- Overview: World War 2
- Profile: Adolf Hitler
- The Origins of World War Two in Europe
- The Western Front
- Pointe du Hoc - The Sixth D-Day Landing
- D-Day Glossary
- Symbols of Empire - Bismarck and Hood
- The Invasion of Poland: 1939
- Who Really Won World War 2 in Europe?
- The Blitz
- Bletchley Park / Station X
20th Century Wars
World Wars 1 and 2 are just the most famous conflicts which involved Europeans in the twentieth century. This section deals with others.
Europe's Wars in America
When Europe’s maritime powers learnt about the existence of the American continent they set out to explore and conquer it. In doing so Europe fought a number of wars against each other, against indigenous peoples and against their own colonists.
- The American Revolutionary War 101
- Why Britain attempted to Tax American Colonists
- France in the American Revolutionary War
- Germans in the American Revolutionary War
- The Effects of the American Revolutionary War on Britain
- The French-Indian War
- Pontiac's Rebellion and Smallpox as a Weapon
The Cold War
Between 1945 and 1991, Europe was divided between two superpowers and their allies: US led NATO in Western Europe and USSR led Warsaw Pact in the east. The war was 'cold' because there was never a direct military engagement between them, due partly to the presence of nuclear weapons on both sides.
Between 1796 and 1815 one of history's most outstanding military minds waged war across Europe: Napoleon Bonaparte.
- Napoleon Bonaparte
- The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
- The French Revolutionary Wars / War of the First Coalition
- The Italian Campaign 1796 - 7
- Napoleon in Egypt
- War of the Second Coalition
- War of the Third Coalition
- War of the Fourth Coalition
- War of the Fifth Coalition
- 1812: The Invasion of Russia
- War of the Sixth Coalition
- The Hundred Days and Waterloo
- The Revolution in Warfare
- The Peninsular War
- The Battle Of Trafalgar
- Timeline of the Wars
- Bonaparte or Buonaparte?
- Books on the Napoleonic Wars
Hundred Years War
Fought between 1337 and 1453, the Hundred Years War was a conflict between the Kings of Britain, France and factions of French nobles over both land and the French throne.
- Introduction to the Hundred Years War
- Aftermath of the Hundred Years War
- Biography of Henry V
- Biography of Joan of Arc
The Norman Conquest: 1066
In 1066, Duke William of Normandy conquered England and changed the history of Western Europe forever. But there were other claimants to the throne who fought that year.
- The Norman Conquest of 1066
- Background to the Norman Conquest
- The Battle of Hastings 1066
- William the Conqueror
- Edward the Confessor / Edward I of England
- Harold II Godwineson
- Harald III Sigurdsson - 'Hardrada'
- The Godwine Family
- The Consequences of the Norman Conquest
- The Bayeux Tapestry
- The Harrying of the North 1069 – 70
The Seven Years War
With Europeans fighting in America, Africa, Asia and Europe, the Seven Years War can claim to have been the first ‘World War’. A large coalition of powers fought against Frederick the Great’s Prussia, and a combination of skill and luck produced a surprising result.