Summary of the Hundred Years WarThe Hundred Years War was a series of connected conflicts between England, the Valois kings of France, factions of French nobles and other allies over both claims to the French throne and control of land in France. It ran from 1337 to 1453; you’ve not misread that, it is actually longer than a hundred years; the name derived from nineteenth century historians and has stuck.
Context of the Hundred Years War: 'English' Land in FranceTensions between the English and French thrones over continental land dated to 1066 when William, Duke of Normandy, conquered England. His descendants in England had gained further lands in France by the reign of Henry II, who inherited the County of Anjou from his father and control of the Dukedom of Aquitaine through his wife. Tensions simmered between the growing power of the French kings and the great power of their most powerful, and in some eyes equal, English royal vassal, occasionally leading to armed conflict.
King John of England lost Normandy, Anjou and other lands in France in 1204, and his son was forced to sign the Treaty of Paris ceding this land. In return he received Aquitaine and other territory to be held as a vassal of France. This was one king bowing to another, and there were further wars in 1294 and 1324, when Aquitaine was confiscated by France and won back by the English crown. As the profits from Aquitaine alone rivalled those of England, the region was important, and retained many differences from the rest of France.
Origins of the Hundred Years WarWhen Edward III of England came to blows with David Bruce of Scotland in the first half of the fourteenth century, France supported Bruce, raising tensions. These rose further as both Edward and Philip prepared for war, and Philip confiscated the Duchy of Aquitaine in May 1337 in order to try and reassert his control. This was the direct start of the Hundred Years War.
But what changed this conflict from the disputes over French land earlier was Edward III’s reaction: in 1340 he claimed the throne of France for himself. He had a legitimate right claim – when Charles IV of France had died in 1328 he was childless, and the 15 year old Edward was a potential heir through his mother’s side, but a French Assembly chose Philip of Valois – but historians don’t know whether he really meant to try for the throne or was just using it as a bargaining chip to either gain land or divide the French nobility. Probably the latter but, either way, he called himself ‘King of France’.
Alternate ViewsAs well as a conflict between England and France, the Hundred Years War can also be viewed as a struggle in France between the crown and major nobles for control of key ports and trading areas and equally a struggle between the centralising authority of the French crown and local laws and independencies. Both are another stage in the development of the collapsing feudal / tenurial relationship between the King-Duke of England and the French King, and the growing power of the French crown.
Edward III, the Black Prince and English VictoriesEdward III pursued a twofold attack on France. He worked to gain allies among disaffected French nobles, causing them to break with the Valois kings, or supported these nobles against their rivals. In addition, Edward, his nobles, and later his son – dubbed ‘The Black Prince’ – led several great armed raids aimed at plundering, terrorising and destroying French land, in order to enrich themselves and undermine the Valois king. These raids were called chevauchées. French raids on the British coast were dealt a blow by the English naval victory at Sluys. Although the French and English armies often kept their distance, there were set piece battles, and England won two famous victories at Crecy (1346) and Poitiers (1356), the second capturing the Valois French King John. England had suddenly won a reputation for military success, and France was shocked.
With France leaderless, with large parts in rebellion and the rest plagued by mercenary armies, Edward attempted to seize Paris and Rheims, perhaps for a royal coronation. He took neither, but brought the 'Dauphin' – the name for the French heir to the throne - to the negotiating table. The Treaty of Brétigny was signed in 1360 after further invasions: in return for dropping his claim on the throne Edward won a large and independent Aquitaine, other land and a substantial sum of money. But complications in the text of this agreement allowed both sides to renew their claims later on.
French Ascendance and a PauseTensions rose again as England and France patronised opposing sides in a war for the Castilian crown. Debt from the conflict caused Britain to squeeze Aquitaine, whose nobles turned to France, who in turn confiscated Aquitaine again, and war erupted once more in 1369. The new Valois King of France, the intellectual Charles V, aided by an able guerrilla leader called Bertrand du Guesclin, reconquered much of the English gains while avoiding any large pitch battles with the attacking English forces. The Black Prince died in 1376, and Edward III in 1377, although the latter had been ineffectual in his last years. Even so, the English forces had managed to check the French gains and neither side sought a pitched battle; stalemate was reached.
By 1380, the year both Charles V and du Guesclin died, both sides were growing tired of the conflict, and there were only sporadic raids interspersed by truces. England and France were both ruled by minors, and when Richard II of England came of age he reasserted himself over pro-war nobles (and a pro-war nation), suing for peace. Charles VI and his advisors also sought peace, and some went on crusade. Richard then became too tyrannical for his subjects and was deposed, while Charles went insane.